This is a small theater that could have held 1,100-1,200 people. Although set at the southern end of the villa, spectators could be conveyed here through the villa's tunnel system, with which the Odeon (also known as the South Theater) is connected. The stage (7), scenae frons (9), cavea (4,5), and small temple (15) at the top end of the main axis of the seating are well preserved. The orchestra (1) was paved in opus sectile; the cavea in white marble. The structure was generously decorated with sculpture, but Ligorio reported in the 16C that many had been melted for lime. It is known that the scenae frons was decorated with statues of the Muses and a frieze of tragic masks (now in the Prado and Vatican Museums). In front of the temple was the statue group (now lost) of Hercules between Minerva and Clio. W. MacDonald and J. Pinto (Hadrian's Villa [New Haven 1995] 135) speculate that the Odeon may have been used for religious ceremonies, but the theatrical nature of the design and decor militate against this. The structure dates to Phase III (133-138).